The problem statement, recast as an IR, will be the focus of the “purpose statement" of the project's Logical Framework. The problem tree is closely linked to the objectives tree, another key tool in the project planners repertoire, and well used by agencies. The problem is an existing negative situation, it is not the absence of a solution. For example, a cause (problem tree) such as “lack of knowledge” would become a meansOUTPUTSFinancial incentives such as “increased knowledge”. Office of Trade and Regulatory Reform Problem: Families lack reasonable access to clean and safe water. For example, we utilized the popular education technique called the problem tree (see also Ferreira and Ferreira, 1997; Tuck, 2008 and Tuck et al 2008) to map the relationships between the everyday occurrences and root causes of a dysfunctional school system. For instance, in the shown example of river pollution, “river water quality is deteriorating” is converted into “quality of river water is improved”. There are various tools Missions can use to conduct problem identification (e.g., fishbone analysis, problem tree, force field, and SWOT (Strengths-Weakness-Opportunity-Threat) analysis). Problem and solution trees: a practical approach for identifying potential interventions to improve population nutrition  Problem/Objective tree is a method to analyze the problems that an organization or a community faces and to set up objectives to respond to these problems. Inputs, which are processes rather than results, will not normally be displayed on an Objective Tree, which like a Results Framework, is a tool for displaying results at various levels in a results hierarchy. Gender Dimensions of Trade Facilitation and Logistics Start work: You need to turn your Problem Tree into an Objective Tree. Once the problem a project will address is confirmed, the focus shifts toward solutions. The output is a graphical arrangement of problems differentiated according to ‘causes’ and ‘effects,’ joined by a core, or focal, problem. It’s okay to add new objectives that come to mind. This technique helps understand the context and interrelationship of problems, and the potential impacts when targeting projects and programs toward specific issues. The technique is an integral part of the ZOPP approach championed by the GTZ and many European development organizations. US Agency for International Development (USAID). Design involves the restatement of problems as desired results, or solutions; consideration of alternative approaches for achieving desired results and the formulation the chosen approach as a chain of linked "in/then" hypotheses. Source: EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2004) The negative situations of the problem tree are converted into solutions, expressed as “positive achievements”. These analytic steps may however illuminate additional options with respect to how to solve problems, and help to specify the Outputs projects will need to produce if they are to achieve IRs and Sub-IRs identified in the CDCS. With the CDCS Results Framework in mind, a Project Design Team is expected to review the development challenge addressed by the IR a project will address to ensure specific and accurate problem identification. Learn how you can get involved and lend a hand. 1 - List all the problems that come to mind. Use of cards - one problem per card - makes the tool useful for group participation in a workshop setting. 2 - Identify a core problem (this may involve considerable trial and error before settling on one). Because the ‘problem tree’ is never static and seldom - if ever - the same for different groups and at different times, it is more a device to broaden thinking than as a definitive project determinant. • The different groups of similar Objectives identified in the Problem tree become Strategies. Develop a solution tree A solution (also called objectives) tree is developed by reversing the negative statements that form the problem tree into positive ones. This tool helps you to define where and where not to intervene. Your tree trunk becomes your project objective, and the roots and branches are redefined to focus on solutions. If you do so, consider going back and adding the associated problem to your problem tree, as well. (See: Tools: ZOPP, and Tools: Logical Planning Framework). Developing an Objective Tree involves the transformation of problem statements into a vision of how things would be if that problem were reduced or eliminated, and what it would take to achieve that vision. Example of an objective tree. Bureau of Economic Growth, Education, and Environment When the problem has been fully analyzed, the Design Team may find it useful to construct an Objective Tree that reframes the central problem and its causes as changes or results to be achieved. To transform your problem tree into an objective tree, simply rephrase each element into a positive solution statement. Think of ANOTHER tree with roots and branches! Problem tree analysis helps stakeholders to establish a realistic overview and awareness of the problem by ing the fundamental causes and their most identify important effects. The Problem tree is closely linked to the Objectives tree, another key tool in the project planner’s repertoire, and well used by development agencies. The ‘problem tree’ is often followed by an ‘objectives tree.’ The problems are converted through simple rewording into specific objectives, and the chart then shows a ‘means-ends’ relationship. Poor nutrition is one of the most significant preventable contributors to the global burden of disease (Ezzati et al., 2002). Figure 6. For more information, please contact Paul Fekete. The problem tree highlights the relations and hierarchy among all identified problems. U.S. Agency for International Development, Problem and solution trees: a practical approach for identifying potential interventions to improve population nutrition, Gender Dimensions of Trade Facilitation and Logistics. • The most appropriate and feasible strategy is selected on the basis of different criteria (priority, budget, timing). Multi-component interventions which tackle a number of significant areas are, therefore, needed (Kumanyika, 2001; Chopra et al., 2002; Darnton-Hill et al., 2004). The problem tree can be converted into an objectives tree by rephrasing each of the problems into positive desirable conditions - as if the problem had already been solved and more. As you work through the roots and branches of your Problem Tree, overlaying each of them with solutions, you develop the framework that you need to assess how and where your organization can best respond. If desired, use the issue of clean water as an issue-based example to guide students through the Problem Tree. For example, ‘lack of sufficient water’ becomes ‘improve water supply.’ These objectives than provide a basis for project and program definition. Find out about career opportunities at USAID. It can be used as the first step to prepare a logical framework. The ‘objective tree uses exactly the same structure as the problem tree, but with the problem statements (negatives) turned into objective statements (positives)’ (AusAID, 2003).Most simply this is done by reversing the problem factor, so, for example, low intake of iron-rich foods is turned into high-intake. Figure 2: Problem hierarchy. In such CDCS's export/import gains and other types of trade performance improvements are at the IR level, where they could become the Purpose of a project. Particularly the problem diagnostic questions, pp. Like the Problem Tree, the Objective Tree is a great tool to help you consider different perspectives, and to define the different routes that you could take to solve your problem. Because the ‘problem tree’ is never static and seldom - if ever - the same for different groups and at different times, it is more a device to broaden thinking than as a definitive project determinant. BETTER PROJECTS THROUGH IMPROVED MONITORING, EVALUATION AND LEARNING, A toolkit developed and implemented by: You can also use this exercise to explain to staff members how to identify/analyze problems and set up objectives. 4 - Arrange in hierarchy both Causes and Effects, i.e., how do the causes relate to each other - which leads to the other, etc. For example, ‘lack of sufficient water’ becomes ‘improve water supply.’ These objectives than provide a basis for project and program definition.